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Recent Breakthroughs in Supercapacitors Boosted by Macrocycles

Supercapacitors are essential for electrochemical energy storage because of their high power density, good cycle stability, fast charging and discharging rates, and low maintenance cost. Macrocycles, including cucurbiturils, calixarene, and cyclodextrins, are cage-like organic compounds (with a nanocavity that contains O and N heteroatoms) with unique potential in supercapacitors. Here, we review the applications of macrocycles in supercapacitor systems, and we illustrate the merits of organic macrocycles in electrodes and electrolytes for improving the electrochemical double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitance via supramolecular strategies. Then, the observed relationships between electrochemical performance and macrocyclic structures are introduced. This comprehensive review describes recent progress on macrocycle-block supercapacitors for interested researchers.

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