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Self‐Driven Prenucleation‐Induced Perovskite Crystallization Enables Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells

Perovskite film with high crystal quality is fundamental to achieving high-performance solar cells. A fast nucleation process is crucial to improving the crystallization quality. Here, we propose a self-driven prenucleation strategy to achieve fast nucleation. This is realized through rational solvent design. The key characteristics of different solvents are systematically evaluated. Among them, formamide, with ultra-high dielectric constant, low Gutman donor number, and a high boiling point, is selected as the co-solvent. These unique characteristics render formamide a double-face solvent that is a good solvent for formamidinium iodide (FAI) and CsI while a poor solvent for PbI2. As a result, formamide induces the self-driven prenucleation of PbI2-DMSO seeding crystals and accelerates the nucleation, improving the crystalline quality of perovskite film. The efficiency of the hole transport layer-free carbon-based perovskite solar cells is boosted beyond 19% for the first time.

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