Combined merits of SiNPs and VACNTs. A hybrid nanostructured anode based on SiNPs anchored on VACNTs with defined spacing to accommodate volumetric changes of SiNPs. The cycling stability and the SEI formation of SiNPs@VACNTs is studied by tuning the Si areal loading either through the modulation of the SiNPs volume by changing the Si deposition time at a fixed VACNTs carpet length or through the variation of VACNT length at a fixed SiNPs volume.
Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Silicon endures volume changes upon cycling, which leads to subsequent pulverization and capacity fading. These drawbacks lead to a poor lifespan and hamper the commercialization of silicon anodes. In this work, a hybrid nanostructured anode based on silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) anchored on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) with defined spacing to accommodate volumetric changes is synthesized on commercial macroscopic current collector. Achieving electrodes with good stability and excellent electrochemical properties remain a challenge. Therefore, we herein tune the active silicon areal loading either through the modulation of the SiNPs volume by changing the silicon deposition time at a fixed VACNTs carpet length or through the variation of the VACNT length at a fixed SiNPs volume. The low areal loading of SiNPs improves capacity stability during cycling but triggers large irreversible capacity losses due to the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By contrast, higher areal loading electrode reduces the quantity of the SEI formed, but negatively impacts the capacity stability of the electrode during the subsequent cycles. A higher gravimetric capacity and higher areal loading mass of silicon is achieved via an increase of VACNTs carpet length without compromising cycling stability. This hybrid nanostructured electrode shows an excellent stability with reversible capacity of 1330 mAh g−1 after 2000 cycles.Zum Volltext