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Enzyme based field effect transistor: State‐of‐the‐art and future perspectives

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The review discloses the historical and technological evolution of enzyme-based field-effect transistors (EnFETs) underlying the importance of gate electrode modification toward the implementation of novel FETs configurations such as extended-gate FET (EG-FETs) or EG organic FETs (EG-OFETs). The working principle of the EnFETs as postulated by Bergveld in 1970, who defined the EnFET as an ion-selective FET (ISFET) modified with enzyme-membrane, is also discussed considering the analytical equations related to the EnFET output response. For each category, namely EnFETs, EG-FETs, and EG-OFETs, we reviewed the key devices’ configurations that addressed the research in this field in the last 40 years with particular attention to the analytical figures of merit.

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