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Complementary Operando Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance and UV/Vis Spectroscopic Studies: Acetate Effects on Zinc‐Manganese Batteries

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Acetate effects: Operando electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry coupled cyclic voltammetry are used to examine the behaviours change in the electrolytes with or without acetates. By identifying the mass-charge ratio and absorbance change, the mechanistic change from mixed reactions to pure deposition/dissolution when exposed to acetates is revealed.


Zinc-ion batteries, in which zinc ions and protons do intercalation and de-intercalation during battery cycling with various proposed mechanisms under debate, have been studied. Recently, electrolytic zinc-manganese batteries, exhibiting the pure dissolution-deposition behavior with a large charge capacity, have been accomplished through using electrolytes with Lewis acid. However, the complicated chemical environment and mixed products hinder the investigation though it is crucial to understand the detailed mechanism. Here, cyclic voltammetry coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis) are respectively, for the very first time, used to study the transition from zinc-ion batteries to zinc electrolytic batteries by the continuous addition of acetate ions. These complementary techniques operando trace the mass and the composition evolution. The observed formation and dissolution of zinc hydroxide sulfate (ZHS) and manganese oxides evince the effect of acetate ions on zinc-manganese batteries from an alternative perspective. Both the amount of acetate and the pH value have large impacts on the capacity and Coulombic efficiency of the MnO2 electrode, and thus they should be optimized when constructing a full zinc-manganese battery with high rate capability and reversibility.

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