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Urea Electrooxidation in Alkaline Environment: Fundamentals and Applications

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

This concept paper aims at emphasizing that electrochemical urea oxidation reaction has been a key reaction among urea-assisted hydrogen production, direct urea fuel cell, urea-contained wastewater urea removal and urea sensors. Urea oxidation reaction has the potential to bridge energy storage and conversion, sewage treatment and healthcare devices, and provides an alternative solution of energy and environmental issues.


Urea is an important chemical in agricultural, biosystem and chemical engineering. It can not only be a fertilizer and feed supplement, but also converted into electricity and hydrogen based on the counterpart half-reactions. In this concept, we demonstrated the fundamental mechanism of electrochemical urea oxidation reaction (UOR) and its various applications on environmental, energy and healthcare devices with typical examples. UOR providing potential directions for the electrochemical treatment of urea-contained wastewater were also introduced in this concept. This work is not focused on electrocatalyst design, but rather offers instructive guidance for the UOR developments in environmental, energy, and healthcare devices.

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