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Solar‐Driven Catalytic Urea Oxidation for Environmental Remediation and Energy Recovery

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Water treatment: Urea is a resource that is available from bio-metabolic processes and industrial production. A huge amount of urea-rich water is over-discharged daily into the environment globally, significantly causing ecosystem imbalance and resource waste. Abundant solar energy provides opportunities for urea conversion to mitigate environmental pollutants and realize energy conversion, building a more sustainable water-energy nexus.


The water-energy nexus is highly related to sustainable societal development. As one of the most abundant biowastes discharged into the environment, mild abatements and green conversions of urea wastewater have been widely investigated. Due to abundant sources, global distribution, and easy control, light-based catalytic strategies have become alternative on-site treatment approaches. After comprehensively surveying the recent progress, recent achievements of urea oxidation under light irradiation are reviewed herein. Several typical light-promoted systems employed in urea conversion, including photocatalysis, photo-electrocatalysis, photo-biocatalysis, and photocatalytic fuel cells, are meticulously introduced and discussed, from catalyst designs and medium conditions to established mechanisms. To realize the goal of sustainability, the chemical energy in urea-rich water could be utilized for the value-added production of hydrogen fuel and electricity. Finally, based on current developments, existing challenges are enumerated and developmental prospects in the future of light-driven urea conversion technologies are proposed.

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