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Single Atom and Metal Cluster Catalysts in Organic Reactions: From the Solvent to the Solid

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Single Atom Catalysts: Metal salts, complexes and nanoparticles can evolve in solution to catalytically active single atoms and clusters, which can be incorporated onto solids (such as single atom catalysts, SACs) to perform key organic reactions in a more sustainable and, many times, efficient way.


The supporting of pre-formed soluble metal catalysts on solids is a typical methodology to transform soluble but unrecoverable metal complexes into recoverable and reusable solid catalysts. However, this methodology has been barely implemented for ligand-less, bare single metal atoms (SMAs) and nanoclusters (NCs) in organic synthesis, despite these ultrasmall species can be formed in-situ during reaction and be the truly catalytic species. The aim of this review is to explore how to speciate active single metal atoms and clusters during homogeneous catalysis (in solution), without ligands, and to prepare them independently, to be transferred to solid supports and catalyze organic reactions. In many cases, the translation to solids gives single atom catalysts (SACs). Supporting of ultrasmall metal aggregates gives more stable, reusable and, sometimes, chemoselective catalysts for representative organic reactions.

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