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Selective and Sustainable Production of Sub‐terminal Hydroxy Fatty Acids by a Self‐Sufficient CYP102 Enzyme from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens

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BAMF0695, a self-sufficient CYP102 enzyme, hydroxylates sub-terminal positions of fatty acids with broad temperature optimum and high thermostability. Mutants of BAMF0695 exhibit very high regioselectivity, generating a single hydroxy fatty acid regioisomer (ω-1 or ω-2) with up to 91 % selectivity. BAMF0695 can also utilize renewable microalgae fatty acids as a substrate feedstock.


Abstract

Enzymatic hydroxylation of fatty acids by Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) offers an eco-friendly route to hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), high-value oleochemicals with various applications in materials industry and with potential as bioactive compounds. However, instability and poor regioselectivity of CYPs are their main drawbacks. A newly discovered self-sufficient CYP102 enzyme, BAMF0695 from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DSM 7, exhibits preference for hydroxylation of sub-terminal positions (ω-1, ω-2, and ω-3) of fatty acids. Our studies show that BAMF0695 has a broad temperature optimum (over 70 % of maximal enzymatic activity retained between 20 to 50 °C) and is highly thermostable (T 50 >50 °C), affording excellent adaptive compatibility for bioprocesses. We further demonstrate that BAMF0695 can utilize renewable microalgae lipid as a substrate feedstock for HFA production. Moreover, through extensive site-directed and site-saturation mutagenesis, we isolated variants with high regioselectivity, a rare property for CYPs that usually generate complex regioisomer mixtures. BAMF0695 mutants were able to generate a single HFA regiosiomer (ω-1 or ω-2) with selectivities from 75 % up to 91 %, using C12 to C18 fatty acids. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of a recent CYP and its variants for sustainable and green production of high-value HFAs.

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