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Ru‐P Nanoalloy from Elemental Phosphorus as P‐Source: Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Evaluation

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Selective hydrogenation: A scalable procedure for the synthesis of Ru2P and RuP nanoparticles was developed, using white phosphorus as P-source. A comprehensive characterization by HAADF-STEM, XPS and 31 P Solid State NMR was carried out. Ru2P was applied in the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines and showed high chemoselectivity and a four-fold increase in the reaction rate in comparison to Ru(0) NPs.


Binary ruthenium-phosphorus nanoparticles (NPs) with different Ru/P ratio were prepared in mild conditions using white phosphorus (P4) as phosphorus source. Accurate study of both their morphology and structure at the atomic level by TEM and HAADF-STEM, respectively, showed that Ru2P and RuP have a narrow size distribution (ca. 3.3 nm) and are lacking an ordered ruthenium phosphide lattice. 31P Solid State NMR highlighted the existence of three different phosphorus species consistently with the lack of a metal phosphide lattice and finally XPS revealed that the true nature of these nanoparticles can be better described as a ruthenium-phosphorus alloy. As a benchmark test, the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes to primary aromatic amines was studied and evidenced how the P-alloying imparts a surface modification resulting in a higher catalytic activity and excellent chemoselectivity of Ru2P in comparison to Ru(0) and RuP.

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