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Recent Advances in Detection and Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Water

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Numerous methodologies are available for the complex task of identifying specific heavy metals and their removal from water samples. Recent advancements in techniques to detect and separate these contaminants along with their pros and cons are reviewed. The role of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment via adsorption of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, and lead is highlighted.


Abstract

The water treatment process by removing heavy metals from polluted sources is explained in detail. Various detection and removal techniques and their modeling for heavy metal removal are reviewed. Detection of heavy metals is possible by several optical, spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Due to their high efficiencies and accurate evaluation capabilities, several spectroscopic as well as other techniques like neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence are discussed and found highly significant. Adsorption, photocatalysis, ion exchange, electrochemical methods, membrane filtration, chemical precipitation, and forward osmosis are the most frequently used techniques for heavy metal removal, being up to 100 % efficient to detect and remove heavy metal ions. The design, operation, and key features of all techniques are explained. The regeneration of used adsorbents, resins, and other materials to remove heavy metals is found as key step in the wastewater treatment process.

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