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Propylene oxidation to acrolein over Cu/MoO3 nanobelt composites.

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Nanocomposites comprised of MoO3 nanobelts with Cu6Mo5O18 derived surface layers are very active for propylene oxidation to acrolein with selectivity approaching 60% between 350-400 °C. They offer high surface areas (~18 m2 g-1) and yield acrolein formation rates exceeding those of unpromoted bismuth molybdates which are the basis of industrial catalysts. Their acrolein selectivity is also markedly higher than that of the Cu2+ molybdates α-CuMoO4 and Cu3Mo2O9. XPS and TPR analyses point to the formation of a Cu+ containing molybdate on the MoO3 nanobelt surfaces which is identified as Cu6Mo5O18 by its unique Raman bands. Kinetic analyses suggest that this surface layer facilitates catalyst re-oxidation which remains the rate-determining step of acrolein formation over the nanocomposites up to 400 °C. Thus, the nanocomposites present a very efficient copper molybdate catalyst design for propylene oxidation to acrolein which is also less susceptible to carbon induced deactivation than bulk Cu2+ molybdates.

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