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Overall Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction over Heterogeneous Semiconductor Photocatalysts

The overall photocatalytic CO2 reduction reaction (PCRR), which uses solar energy to convert CO2 and H2O into chemical feedstocks or fuels without sacrificial reagents, plays a momentous role in CO2 utilization and solar energy conversion. However, significant challenges remain in achieving efficient conversion. Researchers have explored various strategies to realize the overall PCRR efficiently. In this review, we first explain the criteria for evaluating the overall PCRR and then summarize the following strategies developed over the past decade to promote it: self-driving material development, Z-scheme heterojunction construction, cocatalyst loading, heteroatom doping, surface vacancy creation, and carrier-material matching. Finally, we discuss essential future research directions in the field. Through this comprehensive review, we aim to provide strategic guidance for the development of efficient overall PCRR systems.

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