Methyltransferases are enzymes that will in the future enable clean and green alkylation of amino and hydroxy groups as well as reactive carbon atoms. These enzymes, their cofactor SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) and the opportunities’ they offer for new SN2 chemistries are highlighted.
In this review the current state-of-the-art of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases and SAM are evaluated. Their structural classification and diversity is introduced and key mechanistic aspects presented which are then detailed further. Then, catalytic SAM as a target for drugs, and approaches to utilise SAM as a cofactor in synthesis are introduced with different supply and regeneration approaches evaluated. The use of SAM analogues are also described. Finally O-, N-, C- and S-MTs, their synthetic applications and potential for compound diversification is given.Zum Volltext