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Hydrophilic Chitosan Derivatives: Synthesis and Applications

Von Wiley-VCH zur Verfügung gestellt

Nature-sourced polymer alternatives have attracted increasing attention for applications in medicine, cosmetics, agriculture, food, water purification, and more. Among those, chitosan, is the most versatile due to its full biodegradability, exceptional biocompatibility, multipurpose bioactivity, and low toxicity. Although remarkable progress has been made regarding its synthetic modifications using C3/C6 secondary/primary hydroxyl (-OH) and the C2 amino (-NH2) active sites, its solubility under physiological conditions remained limited and hampered larger-scale adoption. This minireview summarizes different synthetic methods that increase chitosan's hydrophilicity and water solubility using covalent modifications, namely, amino acid addition, quaternary ammonium formation, phosphorylation, and carboxymethylation. We also reviewed several applications for each type of substitution in fields such as cosmetics, medicine, agriculture, water purification etc., and provided an outlook and perspective for future modifications and implementations.

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