Two is better than one: A new one-step synthesis method is proposed here combining the electrosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the chemical synthesis of calcium hydroxide nanostructures. Hybrid zinc/calcium nano-oxides are then produced with the aim of creating synergic nanostructures with antimicrobial/consolidating properties, which are ideal for the preservation and conservation of stone artworks.
The present study proposes the one-step synthesis of Zn/Ca hybrid nano-oxides combining an electrochemical route to ZnO nanostructures (NSs) with the wet chemical production of Ca(OH)2 NSs. ZnO is a known antimicrobial and Ca(OH)2 has consolidating properties, both appealing for stone artwork preservation in the field of cultural heritage. Two concentrations of the electrolytic bath (NaOH 0.1 and 0.4 M) were studied resulting in distinct final nanomaterials (Zn−Ca0.1 and Zn−Ca0.4). Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that Zn−Ca0.1 consisted of lamellar calcium hydroxyzincate NSs, whereas Zn−Ca0.4 showed hexagonal Ca(OH)2 (∼500 nm) and ZnO (∼50 nm) NSs. Nanocoatings prepared with Zn−Ca0.1 exhibited a Zn2+ release increasing up to 1 μmol cm−2 in 24 h. Instead, Zn−Ca0.4-based nanocoatings released a constant value of about 0.35 μmol/cm2. Both types of nanocoatings showed good antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis after 48 h and hydrophilic behavior over 28 days.Zum Volltext