The 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic efficiency in the reduction amination of levulinic acid to prepare 1,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone.
1,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone (MNMP), as a highly efficient green solvent, can be obtained from biomass-derived levulinic acid and its esters with 100 % conversion and 96.8 % yield over a 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst at 140 °C, 2 MPa H2, 8 h, and with water as the solvent. Structure-property correlation investigations were performed with diverse characterization methods, including BET, XRD, XPS, TEM, HAADF-STEM, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, CO2-TPD and FT-IR, and the results revealed that the excellent catalytic performance of the 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst was mainly resulted from the strong interaction between Ni and CeOx, which formed more catalytic active sites and contributed to higher reductive amination efficiency. Besides, the 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst had a chemisorption effect on LA. This was also the key to the excellent catalytic activity of the 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst. The 10 % Ni@CeOx catalyst exhibited great stability throughout 6 reaction runs and excellent catalytic efficiency in the kilogram scale preparation of MNMP. This work provides a low-cost, efficient, and environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalytic system for the production of MNMP.Zum Volltext