Bidirectional oxygen reduction and water oxidation cycle for appropriate conversion of renewables to electricity.
The proper utilization of renewable energy sources has emerged as a major challenge in our pursuit of a sustainable and carbon-neutral energy landscape. Small molecule activation is a key component for proper utilization of renewable energy resources, where O2/H2O redox couple is reckoned to be a potential game changer. In this regard, electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have become the prime interest of catalyst designers. Typically, these ORR and OER electrocatalysts are developed distinctly; however, very soon, the requirement of a bidirectional ORR/OER electrocatalyst becomes obvious for practical applicability and rapid energy transduction purposes. A bidirectional catalyst is defined as a catalyst capable of driving a redox reaction in opposing directions. This review has portrayed the development of enzyme structure-inspired design of molecular bidirectional ORR/OER catalysts. The strategic incorporation of secondary and outer coordination sphere features has significantly enhanced the performance of these catalysts, which can be monitored via the key catalytic parameters. These bifunctional OER/ORR catalysts are vital for metal-air battery and fuel cell applications and appropriately poised to lay the foundation for an efficient, economical, and eco-friendly pathway for sustainable energy usage with the rational assembly of energy converting and storage devices.Zum Volltext